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‘Sleep Research & The Subconscious Mind’

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Sleep research is all about coming to terms with the darker side of the mind. The science of sleep helps us delve into the subconscious mind and return with insights into the basic needs of the human brain and body.

“I’m not alseep… but that doesn’t mean I’m awake”

 

In this section, you can learn about the history and science of sleep, and how breakthrough theories from Sigmund Freud helped us to further our understanding of dreams and the subconscious mind.

Learn about the shocking effects of sleep deprivation – a state which lingers at the edge of consciousness, but for most people never quite takes hold. Later we will look at voluntary and forced sleep deprivation.

 

A History of Sleep

The science of sleep and dreaming goes back millennia as you will see in the history of sleep. See how the ancient Greeks and Egyptians interpreted dreams and created their own primitive theories of sleep.

Learn about Circadian Rhythms and how it was another two centuries before Sigmund Freud emerged on the scene with his famous book on dream analysis: The Interpretation of Dreams.

 


Why Do We Sleep?

To learn about modern sleep research, take a look at why do we sleep? This article explains the nature of the NREM and REM sleep cycles, with the brainwave changes that occur in the subconscious mind. It is all about the science of sleep and the human brain.

Discover the role played by neurotransmitters in sleep rhythms and compare human sleep requirements with a host of other animals. This leads to a look at evolution and the four main theories of sleep.

 


Sleep Deprivation

The most famous sleep research often involves sleep deprivation. When humans go without sleep for more than 24 hours, strange things begin to happen… Their minds and bodies soon deteriorate.

Learn about attempts to break the Guinness World Record for sleep deprivation, including Peter Tripp and Randy Gardner, and the planend stunt by David Blaine.

Discover the mental and physical effects of sleep deprivation, including real life studies of people with Fatal Familial Insomnia, a tragic genetic disease which kills its victims from a complete lack of sleep. Understanding this condition has driven the science of sleep to new realms.

 


Why Do We Dream?

If the light has been shed on sleep research – then we are still poking around in the dark for a practical theory of why do we dream?

There is plenty of dream research from the last few decades, but still there is no single accepted theory for this hallucinogenic state. Sigmund Freud had many ideas (including the theory of Id, Ego and Super-Ego) but Freud remains controversial to this day.

Some scientists say that dreams are random impulses from the brain stem, while others insist there is logic and meaning to our dreams, arising from the subconscious mind. Find out why some researchers think dreaming may be a coping method to help us deal with potential real life traumas.

 


Dream Interpretation

What is the meaning of dreams? Dream interpretation is based on the theory that dreams offer hidden messages from the subconscious mind. They may be vital to uncovering lost memories and repressed thoughts – if you really want to dig them up, that is.

Sigmund Freud was the first to put dream interpretation on the map of sleep research. Many people still find his dream analysis useful today. Here you can learn about the language of the subconcious human brain, and how we can relate to it with dream symbols.

This article explains the true meaning behind dreams – with scientific dream interpretation.

Dreams are like letters from the unconscious brain. If only they were written in the same language that we use in waking reality!

Alas, they are disguised through conceptual thinking, which is how the subconscious mind works. But we can decode this information with dream analysis.

 

How to Begin your Dream Interpretation

To begin your dream analysis, start a dream journal, for three reasons:

1. Improve your Dream Recall – so that in time you can remember up to five dreams every night (one for each REM sleep cycle). A powerful technique for remembering dreams is to set your alarm clock to wake you after each REM cycle has finished: first after 3 hours, then every 90 minutes thereafter. This can be disruptive to your sleep, but it is worth trying one night – you will be bowled over by the number of dreams you can recall!

2. Identify Dream Symbols – a dream journal allows you to track recurring dream symbols and translate the underlying meaning behind dreams. For instance, you may repeatedly dream about falling, but this only becomes clear when you count the number of times it appears in your dream journal. That’s because your subconscious mind is trying to send you a message in conceptual form.

3. Increase Dream Meaning – writing and talking about your dreams places greater importance on them in your subconscious mind. The power of the subconscious is truly amazing, and if you give it a task (to remember more dreams) it will comply. Suddenly you will be able to boost your dream recall and have greater opportunities to translate the meaning behind dreams. You may also realize that your dreams become more meaningful for as you open up a new communication channel with the subconscious mind.

 

How to Translate Srubconscious Dreams

The essence of dream interpretation is not to take things literally. Dreaming about death does not mean you are going to die. Instead it may represent the end of an era or part of your life.

Dream analysis is symbolic – because that’s how the subconscious mind works.

The human brain thinks and learns in neural patterns. If you fall off your bike and cut your knee, you will associate your bike with pain. Your subconscious then creates a “rule” to avoid falling off a bike in future. This is a neural pathway; a link between neurons in your brain. It is learned through experience.

Neural pathways become more complex over the years. They apply to every kind of experience in life. Your subconscious mind uses these associations in dreams.

 

How to Interpret Dream Symbols

You have a unique understanding of the world around you. As you grew up, your subconscious learned about friendship, love, loneliness and betrayal. It made up rules about every human emotion and how you should feel about life. These “rules” are reflected in your dreams each night.

But equally, we have all grown up in the same culture, the same era, and we are all human. So it’s no coincidence that we all make the same conclusions about life, subconsciously. That’s where a dream dictionary comes in extremely useful.

Cloud Nine: A Dreamer’s Dictionary is the most complete and comprehensive dream dictionary for beginners. It provides thousands of dream symbols and definitions to translate your subconscious dream interpretation.

For anyone looking to find the meaning behind dreams, this dream dictionary is an excellent start. It also teaches you how to:

  • keep a dream journal
  • identify dream symbols
  • encourage peaceful sleep
  • remember more dreams
  • gain insights from nightmares
  • invoke healing dreams

Cloud Nine is written by a practicing psychologist in California and has received some rave reviews on Amazon. Highly recommended for understanding the true meaning behind dreams.

What is The Unconscious Mind?
The Search for The Inner Self

 

What is the unconscious mind? How does it think? And what is the connection with the inner self? This article takes a look at the nature of the subconscious mind and how to communicate to your true inner self with Greene’s Release.

 

A Brief History

The subconscious mind is a concept created more than 200 years ago, by a man named Carl Gustav Carus. He theorized that beyond our conscious existence, humans also have a latent unconscious mind.

Later, Sigmund Freud said that this subconscious mind is a fairly dark place, that stores traumatic and repressed memories. While we may be unaware of them, these experiences can strongly influence our daily lives. The only time they are freely expressed are during psychotic episodes – and dreams.

But Freud’s protege, Carl Jung, took this theory even further, blurring the rules that Sigmund Freud had set for the unconscious mind and forming a whole new structure of the human mind. Jung said that the unconscious mind is full of transcendent truths – and that we can grow by bringing these truths into conscious awareness. He said the best way to achieve this is through dream interpretation.

 

Modern Theories of The Subconscious Mind

There are a whole range of interesting theories on this. The idea I like most is described by Janet Greene of Greene’s Release in The Five Stages of Life. It explains how the subconscious mind builds up inaccurate perceptions of the world through early experiential learning. Here it is, in a very small nutshell:

 

Stage 1 – We enter life with complete freedom to be ourselves. Our inner self (or spiritual essence) shines through to the physical world. We eat when we feel hungry. We sleep when we feel tired. We laugh when we feel happy. The only thing influencing our behavior is gut feeling. We live in the now.

 

Stage 2 – As children, we learn the rules of life from direct experience. There are good and bad experiences, but even the bad ones – traumatic events, abuse, poor self esteem – are stored as “life rules” in the unconscious mind. It is like a layer of a child’s perspective, and becomes the guiding rules for life. These rules are all stored in the subconscious mind.

 

Stage 3 – As we grow, we apply these life rules to our entire waking experience. If our childhood taught us to have low expectations, they we go on to enter low paid jobs and disappointing relationships. If we never learned to love ourselves, we may self sabotage and never learn to love another. The inaccurate life rules of the unconscious mind filter negativity into our whole lives. Some people get stuck in this stage of life forever, trapped in their own personal nightmare.

 

Stage 4 – Others will feel there is more to life and seek the truth. That’s when we realize that many of our life rules set as children are completely out of whack – and we need to reset them. The only way to do this is by emptying the emotional storage bin and consciously setting new life rules. That’s what the Greene’s Release technique does, and its unlike any other I’ve heard of. (You’ll know of Hypnotic Regression, NLP, and The Sedona Method… they have nothing on this!)

 

Stage 5 – The final stage of life begins when you have released all the unconscious emotional blocks that were holding you back from living a truly happy life. You are able to instinctively feel once again, and wake up smiling from the inside out. You will always act in your best interests and seek fulfilling relationships. You will not experience anxiety or anger or guilt about anything. Best of all, your experience is not filtered by a negative unconscious mind; instead you communicate directly with your wise and intuitive inner self.

 

A New Perception

So while Carl Gustav Carus and Sigmund Freud laid the basic principles of the unconscious mind, they cast a very dark shadow over the inner self. I don’t believe that deep down we’re all riddled with repressed urges as Freud said. Instead, it’s the pure, vibrant inner self that is bursting to get out – but we’ve caged it up as a result of carrying our childhood perceptions through to adulthood. In fact, many modern thinkers believe Carl Jung had it right with his theory of transcendent truths – wisdom emanating, unfiltered, from the inner self. That is the ultimate goal of living according to Greene’s Release, too.

That is how we can access the inner self, by breaking down the misconceptions in the subconscious mind. This is something you can do, consciously, over time – I recommend the Greene’s Release Heal Your Self workbook if you are interested. Its also something to explore in your lucid dreams, as the oneironaut Robert Waggoner explains in this article, 10 Things to Ask Your Lucid Dream Self.

 

The Hypnagogic State:
Hypnagogia and Lucid Dreams

 

The hypnagogic state is a strange phenomena that occurs at the onset of sleep. Also known as hypnagogia, it induces visions, voices, insights and peculiar sensations as you sail through the borderland state.

You are probably used to seeing hypnagogic imagery as you fall asleep. You may see familiar faces, landscapes and geometric shapes take form.

Complex patterns flow across your field of vision, becoming almost hypnotic in nature, and with focus these can be manipulated at will. What many people don’t realize is this imagery can be used to induce lucid dreams.

 

 

What is The Hypnagogic State?

“Only when I am on the brink of sleep,
with the consciousness that I am so…”

Edgar Allan Poe

The term hypnagogic was created in the 19th century by a French psychologist. He derived it from two Greek words: hypnos (meaning sleep) and agogeus (meaning guide). Later, the term hypnopompic came to being, to describe the same phenomena which occurs between sleep and waking. Essentially these are the same hallucinatory states.

Scientists have linked the hypnagogic state with NREM sleep, pre-sleep alpha waves, REM sleep and relaxed wakefulness. There is also a theory that regular meditation can enable you to develop a skill to “freeze the hypnagogic process at later and later stages”.

Some consider hypnagogia to be meaningless activity of the brain – a way of decluttering and clearing out unwanted junk. Others believe it has more value; just like lucid dreams, hypnagogic imagery can be consciously guided and interpreted as it happens, forging a gateway to the unconscious mind.

 

Hypnagogia and Lucid Dreams

Observing your own hypnagogic imagery as you drift to sleep is one way of entering lucid dreams on demand. The most popular technique is known as Wake Induced Lucid Dreams, also called the Hypnagogic Induction Technique.

I strongly recommend attempting the WILD / HIT method as it is an excellent way to explore the realm between consciousness and sleep. There you will find deep relaxation, sudden insights and a connection with the subconscious mind.

Some people may find it difficult to master at first. Usually the hardest part is making the transition from simply observing the complex hypnagogia to interacting with the dream. However, it is worth practicing because this also serves as a powerful form of meditation.

 

Hypnagogia and Sleep Paralysis

The hypnagogic state can also play a rather distressing role in sleep paralysis. While many WILD lucid dreams involve passing through sleep paralysis briefly and uneventfully, some people suffer from prolonged sleep paralysis against their will. In some cases, the fear of being unable to move, paired with complex hypnagogia (or hypnopompia), results in terrifying hallucinations.

The most common experience involves a foreign entity – a stranger, intruder, or even aliens – entering the room and putting pressure on the chest. All this happens while the sufferer is completely paralyzed (with the exception of the eyes, mouth and maybe fingertips). Frequent episodes are rare, but do happen, and are mostly associated with sufferers of narcolepsy or other sleep disorders, such as sleep terrors or even sleep apnea.

 

Interacting with The Hypnagogic State

The purpose of hypnagogic imagery is to relax your mind and send you to sleep. So to take advantage of it for lucid dreaming, you need to maintain a certain level of conscious awareness while your body falls asleep.

One way to do this is practice meditation. Another is to relax while listening to binaural beats – used in products like the Lucid Dreaming MP3. This guides your brain to the right frequencies to experience conscious dreams through hypnagogia.

 

Why Do We Dream?
Modern Theories of Dreaming

 

Why do we dream? Ancient civilizations saw dreams as portals for receiving wisdom from the gods. In modern psychology, Sigmund Freud famously theorized that dreams were the “royal road to the unconscious”. Are we getting closer to understanding dreams?

Sigmund Freud gave psychoanalysis as one explanation for why we dream. But Freud had little understanding of the REM and NREM sleep cycles – and modern day dream research has pointed us to a number of other theories of dreaming. But first, let’s start with the father of dream research…

 

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind. The controversial psychoanalyst said that our brain protects us from disturbing thoughts and memories by repressing them. Freud also believed that we are almost entirely driven by unconscious sexual desire.

If you asked Sigmund Freud “why do we dream?” he would say our dreams are a secret outlet for these repressed desires. Freud used dream analysis to interpret the underlying language of dreams – which is very different from normal conscious thinking. I discuss this idea more in dream interpretation.

To support his dream research, Sigmund Freud split the human psyche into three parts: the Id, Ego and Super-Ego.

  • ID – Newborn babies are born with only an Id. The Id is a sense of mind that causes us to act on impulse: to follow our primary instincts and ignore the consequences. The Id runs on the “pleasure principle” – it doesn’t care about anything but its own satisfaction.
  • EGO – As they grow up, toddlers develop an Ego. This is the part of the psyche that allows us to understand that other people have needs, and that impulsiveness can hurt us in the long run. This “reality principle” makes sure we meet the needs of the Id, without conflicting with the laws of the Ego.
  • SUPER-EGO – By the age of five, we develop the Super-ego. This is our moral brain, that tells us the difference between right and wrong. However it doesn’t make special allowances – it is up to the Ego to decide.
This concept can be demonstrated with The Iceberg Metaphor…

Just like an iceberg, the conscious mind is only the tip. It is a small part of who we are. There is much more under the surface.

Way down below, we have little or no conscious awareness of the Id, which influences all our decisions.

The Ego is free floating in all three levels – both conscious and unconscious – monitoring our behaviors by day.

 

 

Every night when we sleep, we disconnect from our conscious tip of the iceberg. The lights go off and we are protected from external stimuli (like noise, temperature and pain) as well as internal stimuli (like emotions and fears). We do this by creating our own internal worlds – our dreams.

Freud said dreams are a way to express the unconscious emotions arising from the Id – otherwise we would be constantly disturbed by them in our sleep and soon wake up. So why do we dream? To protect our sleep.

 

Carl Jung

Carl Jung (1875-1961) thought he could answer the riddle: why do we dream? Jung was a great follower of Freud and his dream analysis, but he eventually broke away to form very different theories.

“I want to keep my dreams, even bad ones,
because without them, I might have nothing all night long”

Joseph Heller

Jung claimed that the function of dreams is to compensate for parts of the personality that aren’t properly developed in real life. However, this conflicts with the fact that our waking life and our dreams show consistent thoughts and behaviors. For instance, if we are aggressive in real life, we will have violent dreams.

 

Dream Research

There are many theories of dreaming – some overlap with others and some are just plain bizarre. Dream research has given us these core theories:

Why Do We Dream?
…Because of Random Impulses

In 1977, two doctors put forward some dream research that would seriously challenge Freud’s dream understanding. Hobson & McCarley said that dreaming is the result of random impulses coming from the brain stem.

Using an EEG machine, Hobson & McCarley were able to track the regular REM states of people during sleep. They used this data to form a predictable mathematical model and conclude that dreaming is a freak physiological (bodily) occurrence – rather than a psychological function.

According to them, the fact that we see images and hear sounds in our dreams is simply the brain’s way of understanding noisy electrical signals. They said that dreams are random and meaningless.

However, many scientists point out that dreams often make sense. In fact, they can follow very intricate plots. This suggests that our higher brain is playing a role. What’s more, if dreaming was just the brain’s attempt to make sense of nonsense signals, lucid dreams would be impossible!

 


Why Do We Dream?
…To Organize The Brain

We may dream to de-clutter our brains. Every day we are bombarded with new information, both consciously (eg learning) and unconsciously (eg advertising).

This modern dream theory suggests dreaming is a way to file away key information and discard meaningless data. It helps keep our brains organized and optimizes our learning. This theory hasn’t been proven by dream research. If it were 100% correct, our entire day would be replayed to us during our REM sleep!

Critics of this theory also point out that our brains are not the same as computers, and to draw a comparison to filing, processing and storage space is likely to be inaccurate. They also point out that although some of our dreams relate back to the waking day (Freud called this day residue), the majority of our dreams are not about real events.

 


Why Do We Dream?
…To Help Solve Problems

A number of researchers think that dreams are for problem solving.

One scientist in particular, named Fiss, claimed that our dreams help us to register very subtle hints that go unnoticed during the day. This explains why “sleeping on it” can provide a solution to a problem.

 

 

Unfortunately, there are also arguments against this theory of dreaming. For a start, most people only remember a very small number of their dreams. So if our dreams contain important answers – why don’t we remember them better?

 


Why Do We Dream?
…To Cope With Trauma

Dreams may be a way of coping with trauma. Based on the intensity of our emotions, we will generate dreams to cope with certain situations.

For instance, if you escape from a house fire and the experience shakes you up, chances are you will dream about it that night. The more traumatic the event, the more emotions are felt, and the more important it is to get over it. Dreaming about the fire will help you come to terms with what happened and prepare you for it ever happening again.

Of course, this doesn’t explain why we dream of fantastic or mundane things – only that nightmares can be a kind of rehearsal for trauma.

 


Dream Analysis

Here are some more examples of how humans interpret dreams in different cultures around the world:

  • Shamans use dreams to diagnose illness. It is thought that the subconscious brain has an awareness of malfunctions in the body long before the conscious brain. In this sense, shamans are psychoanalysts, much like Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung.
  • The ancient Egyptians used dreams to make predictions about the future. They thought dreams were messages from the gods, which contained vital wisdom and prophecies.
  • Similarly, people in the Western world in the 1900s used dreams to find game, predict the weather, and tell the future.

 

So Why Do We Dream?

Dream research offers many theories – but still no definitive answer to the question: why do we dream? Scientists generally seem to agree that dreaming is a form of thinking during sleep. Dreams contain at least some psychological meaning, but this doesn’t necessarily prove a purpose, such as problem solving. Overall, our understanding of dreams is still quite vague.

In a way, Freud gave dreams an unfortunate legacy. He taught us to associate them with psychological problems and anxieties. But in reality, most of our dreams are healthy and engaging – aren’t they?

Dreams are a mixed bag. The truth is, science still doesn’t have a definitive answer to the question: why do we dream? Most dream research shows that it is worthwhile to remember your dreams – at least, until we figure out what they are for! And if you plan to have lucid dreams, your dream recall is vital…

Bulleh’s Poetry

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The blossoming of love is strange and wondrous!

When I acquired the knowledge of love, I dreaded the mosque.

I fled to my Lords dwelling, Where a thousand sounds reverberate.

When love revealed its mystery to me,

The parroted words vanished. Inside and out, I was cleansed.

I saw my Beloved wherever I looked.

Heer and Ranjha are already one.

But Heer, deluded, still searches the woods.

Here Ranjha is with her, And she does not even know it.

 

I am tired of reading the Vedas and the Koran!

Obeisance has only abraded my forehead.

God was not in Mecca, nor any holy place.

But whoever finds Him becomes brightly illuminated.

Burn the prayer rug, break the clay pot,

Divest yourself of rosary, bowl and staff.

Those who love – proclaim repeatedly and loudly,

‘Eat the forbidden! Forsake halaal!’(a lawful diet)

You have spent your life in the mosque,

Yet your heart is filled with filth.

Not once did you discern that God is One!

What is your point in making this racket now? Your devotion was loveless.

Now your protestations are worthless.

Bulleh says, I would have remained silent,

It is love that compels me to speak forcefully.

The blossoming of love is strange and wonderful.

Bhaanve Jaan Na Jaan VeDe Aa VaD Mere

Whether or not you know this,

Enter my courtyard.

I adore you (I would sacrifice my life for you),

Enter my courtyard.

For me, there is nobody else but you.

Though I search every forest, plain and desert.

Though I search the entire world.

Enter my courtyard.  People believe you are a lowly cowherd,

Named Ranjha.

But you are my faith, my religion.

Enter my courtyard.

I left my parents for love of you,

My Lord, Shah Inayat.

Honor this love I bear for you.

Enter my courtyard.

    Banish the timekeeper, my beloved has come home, my precious one!

    Again and again the time keeper strikes the gong,

    Diminishing this night of our union.

    Were he to look into my heart,

    Himself, he would fling it away.

    The unheard music plays majestically.

    The singer accomplished in rhythm and measure.

    Forgotten are my prayers

    As the distiller gives me plentiful wine.

    At the wondrous sight of his face,

    All my sorrows vanished.

    The night marches on. How can I extend it?

    O build a wall against the day!

 

    I have lost myself.

    I can not remember when I was wedded.

    It is not possible to hide,

    This complete grace that is upon me.

    Many magic spells were cast,

    Magicians came, big and small.

    Now that my beloved is home,

    I will remain with him for a hundred thousand years.

    Says Bullah Shah, in this beloved bed

    I have crossed over to the other side.

    Finally, my turn came,

    Separation is no longer possible.

    Banish the timekeeper, my beloved has

    come home, my precious one.

 The hajjis go to Mecca.

My beloved Ranjha is my Mecca.

Yes, I am crazy! I am wedded to Ranjha.

Still my father pushes me.

    Yes, I am crazy!

    The hajjis go to Mecca

    My bridegroom, within me, is my Mecca.

    Yes, I am crazy!

    Hajjis and ghazis both lie within us,

    Thieves and pickpockets too.

    Yes, I am crazy!

    The Hajjis go to Mecca

    But I am going to Takht Hazara.

    Yes, I am crazy!

    Wherever is your beloved, there lies Kaaba,

    Though you search the four books.

    Yes, I am crazy! Why should I go to Kaaba

    When I long for Takht Hazaara?

    People worship  Kaaba,

    I worship my dearest Friend.

    I long for Takht Hazaara.

    Beloved Raanjha, seeing my defects,

    do not put me out of your mind,

    Remember(think of) this worthless one.

    I long for Takht Hazaara.

    Though I cannot swim,

    It will be your shame if I drown.

    I long for Takht Hazaara.

    I found no one like you,

    Though I searched the entire world.

    I long for Takht Hazaara.

 

 

    Turn your face toward me,

    my dear one,

    Turn your face toward me!

    It is you who inserted the hook in me,

    It is you who pulls the cord.

    Turn your face toward me!

    The call to prayer came from your throne in heaven,

    The sound reverberated in Mecca.

    Turn your face toward me!

    Says Bulleh, I will not die,

    Though someone else may.

    Turn your face toward me!

 

 

          Translated by Suman Kashyap

 

    Stay silent to survive.

    People cannot stand to hear the truth.

    They are at your throat if you speak it.

    They keep away from those who speak it.

    But truth is sweet to its lovers!

    Truth destroys shara (shariah).

    Brings rapture to its lovers,

    And unexpected riches,

    Which shara (shariah) obscures.

    Those lovers cannot remain silent

    Who have inhaled the fragrance of truth.

    Those who have woven love into their lives,

    Leave this world of falsehood.

    Bulleh Shah speaks the truth.

    He uncovers the truth of shara (shariah).

    He opens the path to the fourth level,

    Which shara (shariah) obscures.

‘Spiritual Ballads’

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My Eyes Pour Out Tears

He left me, and himself he departed;

What fault was there in me ?

 

Neither at night nor in the day do I sleep in peace;

My eyes pour out tears !

Sharper than swords and spears are the arrows of love !

There is no one as cruel as love ;

This malady no physician can cure.

There is no peace, not for a moment,

So intense is the pain of separation !

O Bullah, if the Lord were to shower

His grace, My days would radically change !

He left me, and himself he departed.

What fault was there in me ?

By: Bulleh Shah

No Other Thought Exists

Repeating the name of Ranjha

I have become Ranjha myself.

O call me ye all “Dhido-Ranjha,”

let no one call me Heer .

Ranjha is in me, I am in Ranjha,

no other thought exists in my mind.

I am not, He alone is.

He alone is amusing himself.

By: Bulleh Shah

You Alone exist

You alone exist; I do not, O Beloved!
You alone exist, I do not!
Like the shadow of a house in ruins,
I revolve in my own mind.
If I speak, you speak with me:
If I am silent, you are in my mind.
If I sleep, you sleep with me:
If I walk, you are along my path.
Oh Bulleh, the spouse has come to my house:
My life is a sacrifice unto Him.
You alone exist; I do not, O Beloved

Souls Reunited

Staring intensely
Eyes focused
Gaze unaltered
Complete strangers
Or are we?

We talk, we stare
We gaze some more
We don’t speak a word
We embrace
Souls reunited

=====================================================================================

‘I Have been Pierced by the Arrow of Love’

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I have been pierced by the arrow of love,

 what shall I do ?

                                                                                                                                 Bulleh Shah —Century’s Spiritualism

I can neither live, nor can I die.

Listen ye to my ceaseless outpourings,

I have peace neither by night, nor by day.

I cannot do without my Beloved even for a moment.

I have been pierced by the arrow of love,

what shall I do ?

The fire of separation is unceasing !

Let someone take care of my love.

How can I be saved without seeing him?

I have been pierced by the arrow of love,

what shall I do ?

‘Bulleh Shah’

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Tear down the mosque and temple too, break all that divides
But do not break the human heart as it is there that God resides.


Bulleh Shah was a Sufi poet who lived in Pakistan from 1680 to 1758. His given name was Abdullah Shah, Bulleh was a nickname and it is the name he chose to use as a poet. Bullah traveled to Lahore in search of a Murshid(Master). He found Hazrat Shah Inayat, a well-known Qadiri Sufi and gardener by profession. He asked Inayat, “I wish to know how to realize God.” Inayat Shah replied, “What is the problem in finding God? One only needs to be uprooted from here and replanted there.”

 

Inayat graced Bulleh with the secret of spiritual insight and the Knowledge of God.
Bulleh Shah’s poetry reflects a turbulent period in Punjab history and highlights his mystical spiritual journey. He is critical of those in power – intellectuals, academicians and religious authorities – who put obstacles in the way of the common people in discovering the love of God.
Sufism has produced a multitude of saints, Bulleh Shah is arguably one of the greatest Sufi saints and Punjabi poets. His tomb is in Qasur (Pakistan) and today he is highly regarded by all Sufis of Sindh and Punjab.

” Alif -He who meditates on Allah
His face is pale, his eyes bloodshot.
He who suffers pangs of separation,
No longer he longs his life ~ last.
Say -Soulful is my love for you,
Whom shall I go and tell?
In the swelling waters of a river at midnight
A wailing swallow fell. “

Bulleh Shah (Punjabi: ????? ????) was a Punjabi Sufi poet, believed to have lived from 1680 to 1758. As is a common practice in South Asian poetry, his poems include a signature line which contains his name. Bulleh Shah was settled in Kasur, now in Pakistan. His spiritual master was Shah Inayat Qadiri of Lahore.

The ancestral village of Bulleh Shah was Uch Gilaniyan in Bahawalpur, now a part of Pakistan, though his ancestors had migrated from Bukhara in modern day Uzbekistan. From there his family first shifted to Malakwal (Multan District, Pakistan) and then to Pandoke, which is about 14 miles southeast of Kasur, Pakistan. Bulleh’s real name was Abdullah Shah, but Bulleh was his nickname at home, and that is the name he chose to use as a poet. His family background was religious, his father being a highly religious person. Bulleh wrote primarily in Punjabi, but also in the locally spoken language, Siraiki, which is often considered a dialect of Punjabi. His style of poetry is called Kafi, which was already an established style with Sufis who preceded him. Several of his songs are regarded as an integral part of the traditional repertoire of Qawwali, the musical genre which represents the devotional music of the Sufis. The tomb of Bulleh Shah is in Kasur, and he is held in reverence by all Sufis of India and Pakistan.

Mysterious is the turn of time. The man who had been refused by the mullahs to be buried after his death in the community graveyard because of his unorthodox views, today enjoys worldwide reverence and recognition. The tomb of Bulleh Shah in Qasur and the area around it is today the only place free of collective refuse, and the privileged of the city pay handsomely to be buried in the proximity of the man they had once rejected. “This radical change has been possible because people have been impressed in the course of time by the holy way of Bullah’s life and the efficacy of his teachings.

“The greatest Sufi poet of the Punjab was Mir Bulleh Shah Qadiri Shatari. ” Because of his pure life and high spiritual attainments, he is equally popular among all communities. Scholars and dervishes have called him “The Sheikh of Both the Worlds,” “The man of God,” “The Knower of Spiritual Grace” and by other equally edifying titles. Considered as the greatest mystic poet of the Punjab, his compositions have been regarded as “the pinnacle of Sufi literature.” His admirers compare his writings and philosophy to those of Rumi and Shams-i-Tabriz. At present, he is held in equally great esteem in Northern India and Pakistan.

Bulleh Shah’s real name was Abdullah Shah. From Abdullah Shah it changed to Bullah Shah or Bul1 Shah. “Out of affection some call him Baba Bulleh Shah, Sain Bulleh Shah and some others mer Bullah. “The 40th Knot” gives evidence of his t] name. “Invoking the name of God, now pray to Hi the Lord pervades everywhere Abdullah exists more.”

There is some difference of opinion among research scholars about the time of his birth and death. Majority, however, believes that he lived from 1680

1758. Even about his birthplace there is some controversy. Some researchers hold the view that he was born in the village Uch Gilaniyan in Bahawalpur St (Pakistan). They believe that Bulleh Shah remained in this village up to the age of six months, when parents were residing here, but who shifted to village Malakwal (Tehsil Sahiwal, Dist. Multan) for sc reason. They had not been in Malakwal for a long time when the owner of village Pandoke felt the need (preacher for the village mosque. On the recommendations of the people of Malakwal, he approached Bu Shah’s father, Shah Mohammed Dervish, took to Pandoke where he performed the duties not only of the preacher but also of the village teacher for children.

All researchers agree on the point that the ancestors’ village of Bulleh Shah’s parents was Uch Gilaniyan, it is from there that they shifted first to Malakwal

later to Pandoke. However, some researchers hold view that Bulleh Shah’s birth took place after his parents had shifted to Pandoke. Today it is known as Pandoke Bhatian. It is about 14 miles southeast of Qasur and is quite well-known. In fact, Bulleh Shah’s contribution to make it famous is considerable. It is said that from among the ancestors of Bulleh Shah, Sayeed Jallalluddin Bukhari came to Multan from Surakh-Bukhara three hundred years earlier. Here he got initiated from Hazarat Sheikh Ghaus Bahauddin Zakriya of Multan, and here eventually he settled down. Bulleh Shah’s grandfather, Sayyiad Abdur Razzaq, descended from the same line. Thus Bulleh Shah’s family, being of Sayyiad caste, was related to prophet Mohammed on the one hand and on the other hand with Sufi thought and mystic traditions, for centuries.

Bulleh Shah’s father, Shah Mohammed Dervish, was well-versed in Arabic, Persian and the holy Qura’n. He was a noble soul with spiritual leanings. It is said that out of the whole family, Bulleh Shah’s sister had the greatest love for him, who, like her brother, remained celibate all her life, and spent much of her time in meditation. Both, brother and sister, had been greatly influenced by the high moral character of their father who, out of respect for him, had been given the title “Dervish. ” The tomb of Bulleh Shah’s father still exists in Pandoke Bhatian. Every year an urs is performed at the tomb and Bulleh Shah’s kafis are sung there. In this way a tribute is paid to both, father and son, and it has assumed the form of a tradition to perpetuate theirmemory.

Bulleh Shah’s childhood was spent under the care of his father at Pandoke. He received his early education, like that of other children, from his father. Later, for higher education he was sent to Qasur, which was a well-known educational center those days. In Qasur there were eminent teachers such as Hazarat Ghulam Murtaza and Maulana Mohiyuddin. Their fame had spread far and wide. Bulleh Shah too became a pupil of Hazarat Ghulam Murtaza. With his native intelligence and moral inclination, he gained much from his contact with his teacher.

There is a strong historical evidence to show that Bulleh Shah was an eminent scholar of Arabic and Persian. From his own compositions we can find many references to Islamic thought and mystic literature. Later, when he attained mystic realization, his erudition and learning acquired a new significance. But Bulleh Shah had to pass through a hard struggle before he could attain the inner knowledge. This attainment was possible only through his contact with his Murshid or Master, Inayat Shah. The study of scriptures and other holy books had only aroused his interest and curiosity about spiritual realization. His longing for union with the Lord reached its consummation only after he met a perfect Master in the person of Shah Inayat Qadiri.

Inayat Shah was a well-known Qadiri Sufi of his time. From the historical point of view the Qadiri Sufis can be traced back to the Sufi Saint Abdul Qadri Jilani of Bagdad. Jilani is also known by the names Pir Dastgir and Piran-i-Pir. Bulleh Shah himself has also given a hint that his “Master of Masters” was born in Bagdad but his own Master belonged to Lahore:

My Master of Masters hailed from Bagdad,

but my Master belongs to the throne of Lahore.

It is all the same. For He himself is the kite

and He himself is the string.

Two collections of Sheikh Abdul-Qadir Jilani’s sermons, al Fathal Rabbani, comprising 62 and the Futuh al-Ghaib, containing 78 of them, are well known to Islamic readers. In one of the sermons, he strongly denounced his contemporaries for their materialistic way of life. In another sermon he said, “Good and evil were two fruits emerging from two branches of a single tree. One of the branches yielded sweet fruit and the other bitter; it would be wise, therefore, for people to move to areas where the sweet fruits were to be found.” Also, ” A jihad fought against self-will was, to Sheikh Abdul-Qadir far superior to that waged with the sword. Through this struggle the idolatory of the self and the worshi p of created things ( the hidden shirk) could be vanquished. Sheikh Jilani “advised his audience that seekers of God had to be indifferent towards even the life hereafter and to cultivate pleasure only in the thought of annihilation and abiding poverty in this life. “4

In India the influence of the Sufi Qadiri thought was,  felt after three centuries in 1432 through the person of Mohammed Ghaus, a Sufi dervish. Mohammed Ghaus first settled in Bahawalpur, but later his teachings reached far and wide.

The Sufi saint of Punjab, Mian Mir (1550-1635 A. D.) was also connected with the Qadiri tradition. It is well-known that Guru Ram Das got the foundation of Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar laid by Mian Mir. The story is also current that at the time of the Mughul emperor Jahangir’s persecution of the fifth Guru, Shri Arjun Dev, Mian Mir sought the approval of Guru Arjun Dev to raze the town of Delhi to the ground if he so permitted. The Guru replied that he could also do it, but under all conditions one must live in the will of God. It is obvious from this that there was great love between Mian Mir and the Gurus, and that he was held in great esteem by them.

The date of birth of Inayat Shah Qadiri (died 1728 A.D.) is not known. But, from one of his own hand-written manuscripts, it is evident that he was enjoying good health in 1699 A.D. He was an eminent Sufi saint of the Qadiri tradition and is said to be a scholarly author. He wrote a number of Persian books on mysticism, from among which Dastur-ul-Amal, Islah-ul-Amal, Lataif-i-Ghaibya, and Ishartul Talibin are particularly well-known. In Dastur-ul-Amal he has made a mention of seven spiritual stages. The ancient Hindu rishis considered passing through these stages as necessary for God-realization.

Inayat Shah lived in Lahore, so he was called Inayat Shah Lahori. He belonged to the Arain caste and earned his living through agriculture or gardening. He

also lived in Qasur for some time, but due to the animosity of the ruler of Qasur he shifted to Lahore, where he remained till the end of his life. His tomb is also situated near Lahore. In Bang-i-Auliya-i-Hind we find the following reference about him:

From the tribe of gardeners was brother Shah Inayat,

He received honor from Shah Raza Wali Allah.

He earned his living in the small town of Qasur Pathana.

The ruler Husein Khan of this town was his arch enemy.

From there Inayat Shah came to the city of Lahore;

Two miles to the south of the city he made his habitation.

It is at this place that we find his tomb.

In 1141 he departed from this world.

It is said that even before coming in contact with Inayat Shah, Bulleh Shah used to do some spiritual practice, and had acquired certain miraculous powers. When Bulleb Shah, the seeker, passed near the small field of Inayat Shah, he saw fruit laden trees on both sides of the road. Inayat Shah himself was engaged in planting onion seedlings. It occurred to Bulleh Shah to test Inayat Shah of his spiritual power. Invoking the name of God, Bullah looked at the trees, and the fruit started falling on the ground. Inayat Shah looked back and saw that unripe fruit was falling from the trees without any reason. He immediately realized that it was due to the mischief played by the young man passing by. He looked towards Bulleh Shah and said, “Well, young man, why have you brought down the unripe fruit from the trees?” This is what Bulleh Shah wanted, to find an opportunity to talk to Inayat Shah. He went up to him and said, “Sir, I neither climbed up the trees, nor did I throw any stones at the fruit, how could I tear it from the trees ?” Inayat Shah cast a full glance at Bulleh Shah and said, “0, you are not only a thief, you are also being clever! ” Inayat’s glance was so penetrating that it touched Bullah’s heart and he instantly fell at his feet. Inayat Shah asked him his name and the purpose for coming to him. Bullah replied, “Sir, my name is Bullah and I wish to know how I can realize God.” Inayat Shah said, “Why do you look down? Get up and look at me.” As soon as Bullah raised his head and looked at Inayat Shah, the Master again cast at him a full glance, laden with love, shaking him all through. He said “0 Bullah, what problem is there in finding God ? It only needs to be uprooted from here and planted there.” This was enough for Bulleh Shah. He got what he had wished for .

Inayat Shah had poured the essence of spirituality in these few words. He conveyed to Bulleh Shah that the secret of spiritual progress lay in detaching one’s mind from the world outside and attaching it to God within. In Bang-i-Auliya-i-Hindthis instance has been describedas below:

“In the city of Qasur Pathana it happened to a man of God, a descendent of prophet Mohammed, the grandson  of Pir Jilani, that he achieved greatness from Hazrat Shah Inayat whose tomb lies in Lahore, south of the city. Bulleh Shah said to himelf, “I must get my Master after testing him. I must fully satisfy myself, I must drink water after straining it.” In his intense search for his Master he first looked towards Lahore, then he came there and took his residence, where the garden of Shah Inayat was situated. There he saw a mango on a tree at that time, he looked at it, invoked the name of God, and the mango fell on the ground. Shah lnayat gave a call to him and said, “Listen, you wayfarer, you have stolen my mango. Give it back to me.” Bulleh Shah replied, “I did not climb up the tree; your mangoes are far from my reach. It is with the wind that the mango broke from the branch and came into my lap. Invoking the name of God, you got the mango. You have committed a theft. ” Bulleh Shah realized the spiritual power and knowledge of Inayat Shah. He fell at his feet, was graced by initiation from the Master and attained the secret knowledge.”

 

Bulleh Shah’s meeting with the Master, getting initiation from him and being deeply impressed has been described by a scholar in these words :

“Bulleh Shah had all those virtues in him which Shah Inayat was looking for in a disciple. He opened his inner treasure and placed it before him. .-.He got the vision, he became oblivious of his surroundings, and in that state of rapture he proclaimed the gift of his inner grace in the manner of Mansur. ”

 

Bulleh Shah started to pass his time in a state of strange ecstasy. In the company of his Master and with the practice of the path he had been shown, Bulleh Shah’s spiritual condition started changing day by day. His kafi, “Whatever color I am dyed in ” makes it clear how great was the effect of his Master on him. In it he mentions that his inner eye had been opened, all his doubts had been removed, and he had been blessed with the light of Realization. Through the grace of his Master he had the vision of the Lord within and that for him no difference existed between his Master and the Lord.

The effect of his master was so profound that but for his Master nothing else mattered for him. He became strangely selfless and impervious to affairs of the world.  Prof. Purn Singh has described an interesting incidence of this phase of Bulleh Shah’s life in his book The Spirit of Oriental Poetry. One day he saw a young girl whose husband was expected to come home, and in whose preparation she was putting plaits in her hair.  A strange desire arose in his mind.  He also dressed himself like that woman, put the same type of plaits in his hair, and went in this guise to meet his Master.  For the worldly people such an act would look ridiculous, but it shows not only the great love for his Master but also his unconcern with public opinion and his desire to sacrifice himself for his beloved.  In the manner of true lovers he shed his mescaline pride and assumed the form of a helpless women who renounces her ego and surrenders herself completely to her lord.

Whatever questions or doubts Bulleh Shah had in his mind before he met his Master, were all drowned in the experience of inner light.  When he had made up his mind to come to Inayat Shah, people had dissuaded him from doing so, saying, “You are a great scholar, a master of miraculous powers and a descendent of prophet Mohammed.  Does it seem right to you to go to an ordinary gardener of low caste and become his disciple? Is it not shameful?”  But his Master was true to his name.  HE showered such grace on Bulleh Shah that a single glance of his made him saturated with spiritual light. In ecstatic gratitude Bullah proclaimed: “O Bullah, if you seek the pleasure of a garden in spring, go and become a servant of the Arain.” Bulleh Shah held the hem of his Master’s cloak so firmly that he never let it go from his hand for the rest of his life. All of Bulleh Shah’s compositions are suffused with love and gratitude for his Master.

In this love he identified his Master with the Lord. He has addressed Shah Inayat with such words as guide, as one who unites people with God, besides calling him spouse, husband, Lord, friend, and beloved.

1.    He listens to my tale of woe;

      Shah lnayat guides me and takes me across.

 (Week)

2 a.  Shah Inayat is my Master, who has come to grace me.

 All my wrangles and strife’s are over.

 Who can now delude me ?

     (Acrostic)

  b. Bullah has fallen in love with the Lord.

     He has given his life and body as earnest.

     His Lord and Master is Shah Inayat

     who has captivated his heart.

     (Baran Maha)

  c. He pervades in everyone.

     Shah lnayat himself showed it, And then alone I could see.

    (Baran Maha)

3 a. Inayat will come to my nuptial couch;

     I am in great delight.

    (Knot)

  b. My friends have come to congratulate me.

     Shah Inayat, my Lord, has fulfilled my hopes.

    (Baran Maha)

 c. I left my parents to take your shelter,

    O my beloved King Inayat!

    Now honor this bond of love,

    for I am entirely in your hands.

    Pray, walk into my courtyard !

   (Kafi)

 d. Come Love, fold me in your arms,

    Why this estrangement ? Says Bullah:

    Ever since I found Shah Inayat, The Lord has taken abode in me.

   (Kafi)

 e. Bulleh Shah has no caste ;

    He has found Shah Inayat.

   (Kafi)

He calls his Master the Lord of the soul and the philosopher’s stone, which can turn iron into gold.

O Bullah, my Lord Inayat knows God,

He is the Master of my heart.

I am iron, he is the philosopher’s stone.

Again,

“The Master is an adept in swimming,  he can take across an inept and helpless woman.”

Bullah also calls him the one who can embellish t soul with spiritual apparel and jewelry and transform widow into a bride.

O Bullah, the Lord brought me to the door of Inayat,

Who embellished me with clothes green and red.

For a distinguished scholar, who belonged to the line of prophet Mohammed, to accept an ordinary vegetable grower as his Master was a very extraordinary event in the social conditions of Bulleh Shah’s times. It was like an explosion which shook the prevailing social structure. Bullah had to suffer the taunts and ridicule not only of men of his religion, clan and caste, but also of all members of his family. He says :

1. 0, what has love done to me?

   People hurl at me taunts and rebukes.

2. For the sake of my true friend,

   I have to bear the reproaches of people.

3. To admonish Bullah came his sisters and sisters-in-law,

   “Why have you brought disgrace to the prophet

   and to the progeny of Ali?

Listen to our advice, 0 Bullah, and leave the hem of the Arain’s skirt.

Bullah preached fearlessly that the guidance of a Master was indispensable for spiritual realization, and the caste of the Master did not at all matter in this pursuit. Even if he belonged to the lowest caste, his help would still remain indispensable. Thus, he proclaimed at the top of his voice that pride in being a Sayyiad would land one in hell, and the one who held the skirt of a Master like Inayat Shah would enjoy the pleasures of heaven.

Let anyone, who calls me a Sayyiad,

 be punished with tortures of hell,

And let him revel in the pleasures of heaven,

 who labels me an Arain.

If you seek the pleasures of the spring season,

 become a slave of the Arain.

Mysterious is the turn of time. The man who had been refused by the mullahs to be buried after his death in the community graveyard because of his unorthodox views, today enjoys worldwide reverence and recognition. The tomb of Bulleh Shah in Qasur and the area around it is today the only place free of collective refuse, and the privileged of the city pay handsomely to be buried in the proximity of the man they had once rejected. “This radical change has been possible because people have been impressed in the course of time by the holy way of Bullah’s life and the efficacy of his teachings.

“The greatest Sufi poet of the Punjab was Mir Bulleh Shah Qadiri Shatari. ” Because of his pure life and high spiritual attainments, he is equally popular among all communities. Scholars and dervishes have called him “The Sheikh of Both the Worlds,” “The man of God,” “The Knower of Spiritual Grace” and by other equally edifying titles. Considered as the greatest mystic poet of the Punjab, his compositions have been regarded as “the pinnacle of Sufi literature.” His admirers compare his writings and philosophy to those of Rumi and Shams-i-Tabriz. At present, he is held in equally great esteem in Northern India and Pakistan.

Bulleh Shah’s real name was Abdullah Shah. From Abdullah Shah it changed to Bullah Shah or Bul1 Shah. “Out of affection some call him Baba Bulleh Shah, Sain Bulleh Shah and some others mer Bullah. “The 40th Knot” gives evidence of his t] name. “Invoking the name of God, now pray to Hi the Lord pervades everywhere Abdullah exists more.”

There is some difference of opinion among research scholars about the time of his birth and death. Majority, however, believes that he lived from 1680

1758. Even about his birthplace there is some controversy. Some researchers hold the view that he was born in the village Uch Gilaniyan in Bahawalpur St (Pakistan). They believe that Bulleh Shah remained in this village up to the age of six months, when parents were residing here, but who shifted to village Malakwal (Tehsil Sahiwal, Dist. Multan) for sc reason. They had not been in Malakwal for a long time when the owner of village Pandoke felt the need (preacher for the village mosque. On the recommendations of the people of Malakwal, he approached Bu Shah’s father, Shah Mohammed Dervish, took to Pandoke where he performed the duties not only of the preacher but also of the village teacher for children.

All researchers agree on the point that the ancestors’ village of Bulleh Shah’s parents was Uch Gilaniyan, it is from there that they shifted first to Malakwal

later to Pandoke. However, some researchers hold view that Bulleh Shah’s birth took place after his parents had shifted to Pandoke. Today it is known as Pandoke Bhatian. It is about 14 miles southeast of Qasur and is quite well-known. In fact, Bulleh Shah’s contribution to make it famous is considerable. It is said that from among the ancestors of Bulleh Shah, Sayeed Jallalluddin Bukhari came to Multan from Surakh-Bukhara three hundred years earlier. Here he got initiated from Hazarat Sheikh Ghaus Bahauddin Zakriya of Multan, and here eventually he settled down. Bulleh Shah’s grandfather, Sayyiad Abdur Razzaq, descended from the same line. Thus Bulleh Shah’s family, being of Sayyiad caste, was related to prophet Mohammed on the one hand and on the other hand with Sufi thought and mystic traditions, for centuries.

Bulleh Shah’s father, Shah Mohammed Dervish, was well-versed in Arabic, Persian and the holy Qura’n. He was a noble soul with spiritual leanings. It is said that out of the whole family, Bulleh Shah’s sister had the greatest love for him, who, like her brother, remained celibate all her life, and spent much of her time in meditation. Both, brother and sister, had been greatly influenced by the high moral character of their father who, out of respect for him, had been given the title “Dervish. ” The tomb of Bulleh Shah’s father still exists in Pandoke Bhatian. Every year an urs is performed at the tomb and Bulleh Shah’s kafis are sung there. In this way a tribute is paid to both, father and son, and it has assumed the form of a tradition to perpetuate theirmemory.

Bulleh Shah’s childhood was spent under the care of his father at Pandoke. He received his early education, like that of other children, from his father. Later, for higher education he was sent to Qasur, which was a well-known educational center those days. In Qasur there were eminent teachers such as Hazarat Ghulam Murtaza and Maulana Mohiyuddin. Their fame had spread far and wide. Bulleh Shah too became a pupil of Hazarat Ghulam Murtaza. With his native intelligence and moral inclination, he gained much from his contact with his teacher.

There is a strong historical evidence to show that Bulleh Shah was an eminent scholar of Arabic and Persian. From his own compositions we can find many references to Islamic thought and mystic literature. Later, when he attained mystic realization, his erudition and learning acquired a new significance. But Bulleh Shah had to pass through a hard struggle before he could attain the inner knowledge. This attainment was possible only through his contact with his Murshid or Master, Inayat Shah. The study of scriptures and other holy books had only aroused his interest and curiosity about spiritual realization. His longing for union with the Lord reached its consummation only after he met a perfect Master in the person of Shah Inayat Qadiri.

Inayat Shah was a well-known Qadiri Sufi of his time. From the historical point of view the Qadiri Sufis can be traced back to the Sufi Saint Abdul Qadri Jilani of Bagdad. Jilani is also known by the names Pir Dastgir and Piran-i-Pir. Bulleh Shah himself has also given a hint that his “Master of Masters” was born in Bagdad but his own Master belonged to Lahore:

My Master of Masters hailed from Bagdad,

but my Master belongs to the throne of Lahore.

It is all the same. For He himself is the kite

and He himself is the string.

Two collections of Sheikh Abdul-Qadir Jilani’s sermons, al Fathal Rabbani, comprising 62 and the Futuh al-Ghaib, containing 78 of them, are well known to Islamic readers. In one of the sermons, he strongly denounced his contemporaries for their materialistic way of life. In another sermon he said, “Good and evil were two fruits emerging from two branches of a single tree. One of the branches yielded sweet fruit and the other bitter; it would be wise, therefore, for people to move to areas where the sweet fruits were to be found.” Also, ” A jihad fought against self-will was, to Sheikh Abdul-Qadir far superior to that waged with the sword. Through this struggle the idolatory of the self and the worshi p of created things ( the hidden shirk) could be vanquished. Sheikh Jilani “advised his audience that seekers of God had to be indifferent towards even the life hereafter and to cultivate pleasure only in the thought of annihilation and abiding poverty in this life. “4

In India the influence of the Sufi Qadiri thought was,  felt after three centuries in 1432 through the person of Mohammed Ghaus, a Sufi dervish. Mohammed Ghaus first settled in Bahawalpur, but later his teachings reached far and wide.

The Sufi saint of Punjab, Mian Mir (1550-1635 A. D.) was also connected with the Qadiri tradition. It is well-known that Guru Ram Das got the foundation of Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar laid by Mian Mir. The story is also current that at the time of the Mughul emperor Jahangir’s persecution of the fifth Guru, Shri Arjun Dev, Mian Mir sought the approval of Guru Arjun Dev to raze the town of Delhi to the ground if he so permitted. The Guru replied that he could also do it, but under all conditions one must live in the will of God. It is obvious from this that there was great love between Mian Mir and the Gurus, and that he was held in great esteem by them.

The date of birth of Inayat Shah Qadiri (died 1728 A.D.) is not known. But, from one of his own hand-written manuscripts, it is evident that he was enjoying good health in 1699 A.D. He was an eminent Sufi saint of the Qadiri tradition and is said to be a scholarly author. He wrote a number of Persian books on mysticism, from among which Dastur-ul-Amal, Islah-ul-Amal, Lataif-i-Ghaibya, and Ishartul Talibin are particularly well-known. In Dastur-ul-Amal he has made a mention of seven spiritual stages. The ancient Hindu rishis considered passing through these stages as necessary for God-realization.

Inayat Shah lived in Lahore, so he was called Inayat Shah Lahori. He belonged to the Arain caste and earned his living through agriculture or gardening. He

also lived in Qasur for some time, but due to the animosity of the ruler of Qasur he shifted to Lahore, where he remained till the end of his life. His tomb is also situated near Lahore. In Bang-i-Auliya-i-Hind we find the following reference about him:

From the tribe of gardeners was brother Shah Inayat,

He received honor from Shah Raza Wali Allah.

He earned his living in the small town of Qasur Pathana.

The ruler Husein Khan of this town was his arch enemy.

From there Inayat Shah came to the city of Lahore;

Two miles to the south of the city he made his habitation.

It is at this place that we find his tomb.

In 1141 he departed from this world.

It is said that even before coming in contact with Inayat Shah, Bulleh Shah used to do some spiritual practice, and had acquired certain miraculous powers. When Bulleb Shah, the seeker, passed near the small field of Inayat Shah, he saw fruit laden trees on both sides of the road. Inayat Shah himself was engaged in planting onion seedlings. It occurred to Bulleh Shah to test Inayat Shah of his spiritual power. Invoking the name of God, Bullah looked at the trees, and the fruit started falling on the ground. Inayat Shah looked back and saw that unripe fruit was falling from the trees without any reason. He immediately realized that it was due to the mischief played by the young man passing by. He looked towards Bulleh Shah and said, “Well, young man, why have you brought down the unripe fruit from the trees?” This is what Bulleh Shah wanted, to find an opportunity to talk to Inayat Shah. He went up to him and said, “Sir, I neither climbed up the trees, nor did I throw any stones at the fruit, how could I tear it from the trees ?” Inayat Shah cast a full glance at Bulleh Shah and said, “0, you are not only a thief, you are also being clever! ” Inayat’s glance was so penetrating that it touched Bullah’s heart and he instantly fell at his feet. Inayat Shah asked him his name and the purpose for coming to him. Bullah replied, “Sir, my name is Bullah and I wish to know how I can realize God.” Inayat Shah said, “Why do you look down? Get up and look at me.” As soon as Bullah raised his head and looked at Inayat Shah, the Master again cast at him a full glance, laden with love, shaking him all through. He said “0 Bullah, what problem is there in finding God ? It only needs to be uprooted from here and planted there.” This was enough for Bulleh Shah. He got what he had wished for .

Inayat Shah had poured the essence of spirituality in these few words. He conveyed to Bulleh Shah that the secret of spiritual progress lay in detaching one’s mind from the world outside and attaching it to God within. In Bang-i-Auliya-i-Hindthis instance has been describedas below:

“In the city of Qasur Pathana it happened to a man of God, a descendent of prophet Mohammed, the grandson  of Pir Jilani, that he achieved greatness from Hazrat Shah Inayat whose tomb lies in Lahore, south of the city. Bulleh Shah said to himelf, “I must get my Master after testing him. I must fully satisfy myself, I must drink water after straining it.” In his intense search for his Master he first looked towards Lahore, then he came there and took his residence, where the garden of Shah Inayat was situated. There he saw a mango on a tree at that time, he looked at it, invoked the name of God, and the mango fell on the ground. Shah lnayat gave a call to him and said, “Listen, you wayfarer, you have stolen my mango. Give it back to me.” Bulleh Shah replied, “I did not climb up the tree; your mangoes are far from my reach. It is with the wind that the mango broke from the branch and came into my lap. Invoking the name of God, you got the mango. You have committed a theft. ” Bulleh Shah realized the spiritual power and knowledge of Inayat Shah. He fell at his feet, was graced by initiation from the Master and attained the secret knowledge.”

 

Bulleh Shah’s meeting with the Master, getting initiation from him and being deeply impressed has been described by a scholar in these words :

“Bulleh Shah had all those virtues in him which Shah Inayat was looking for in a disciple. He opened his inner treasure and placed it before him. .-.He got the vision, he became oblivious of his surroundings, and in that state of rapture he proclaimed the gift of his inner grace in the manner of Mansur. “

 

Bulleh Shah started to pass his time in a state of strange ecstasy. In the company of his Master and with the practice of the path he had been shown, Bulleh Shah’s spiritual condition started changing day by day. His kafi, “Whatever color I am dyed in ” makes it clear how great was the effect of his Master on him. In it he mentions that his inner eye had been opened, all his doubts had been removed, and he had been blessed with the light of Realization. Through the grace of his Master he had the vision of the Lord within and that for him no difference existed between his Master and the Lord.

The effect of his master was so profound that but for his Master nothing else mattered for him. He became strangely selfless and impervious to affairs of the world.  Prof. Purn Singh has described an interesting incidence of this phase of Bulleh Shah’s life in his book The Spirit of Oriental Poetry. One day he saw a young girl whose husband was expected to come home, and in whose preparation she was putting plaits in her hair.  A strange desire arose in his mind.  He also dressed himself like that woman, put the same type of plaits in his hair, and went in this guise to meet his Master.  For the worldly people such an act would look ridiculous, but it shows not only the great love for his Master but also his unconcern with public opinion and his desire to sacrifice himself for his beloved.  In the manner of true lovers he shed his mescaline pride and assumed the form of a helpless women who renounces her ego and surrenders herself completely to her lord.

Whatever questions or doubts Bulleh Shah had in his mind before he met his Master, were all drowned in the experience of inner light.  When he had made up his mind to come to Inayat Shah, people had dissuaded him from doing so, saying, “You are a great scholar, a master of miraculous powers and a descendent of prophet Mohammed.  Does it seem right to you to go to an ordinary gardener of low caste and become his disciple? Is it not shameful?”  But his Master was true to his name.  HE showered such grace on Bulleh Shah that a single glance of his made him saturated with spiritual light. In ecstatic gratitude Bullah proclaimed: O Bullah, if you seek the pleasure of a garden in spring, go and become a servant of the Arain.” Bulleh Shah held the hem of his Master’s cloak so firmly that he never let it go from his hand for the rest of his life. All of Bulleh Shah’s compositions are suffused with love and gratitude for his Master.

In this love he identified his Master with the Lord. He has addressed Shah Inayat with such words as guide, as one who unites people with God, besides calling him spouse, husband, Lord, friend, and beloved.

1.    He listens to my tale of woe;

      Shah lnayat guides me and takes me across.

 (Week)

2 a.  Shah Inayat is my Master, who has come to grace me.

 All my wrangles and strife’s are over.

 Who can now delude me ?

     (Acrostic)

  b. Bullah has fallen in love with the Lord.

     He has given his life and body as earnest.

     His Lord and Master is Shah Inayat

     who has captivated his heart.

     (Baran Maha)

  c. He pervades in everyone.

     Shah lnayat himself showed it, And then alone I could see.

    (Baran Maha)

3 a. Inayat will come to my nuptial couch;

     I am in great delight.

    (Knot)

  b. My friends have come to congratulate me.

     Shah Inayat, my Lord, has fulfilled my hopes.

    (Baran Maha)

 c. I left my parents to take your shelter,

    O my beloved King Inayat!

    Now honor this bond of love,

    for I am entirely in your hands.

    Pray, walk into my courtyard !

   (Kafi)

 d. Come Love, fold me in your arms,

    Why this estrangement ? Says Bullah:

    Ever since I found Shah Inayat, The Lord has taken abode in me.

   (Kafi)

 e. Bulleh Shah has no caste ;

    He has found Shah Inayat.

   (Kafi)

He calls his Master the Lord of the soul and the philosopher’s stone, which can turn iron into gold.

O Bullah, my Lord Inayat knows God,

He is the Master of my heart.

I am iron, he is the philosopher’s stone.

Again,

“The Master is an adept in swimming,  he can take across an inept and helpless woman.”

Bullah also calls him the one who can embellish t soul with spiritual apparel and jewelry and transform widow into a bride.

O Bullah, the Lord brought me to the door of Inayat,

Who embellished me with clothes green and red.

For a distinguished scholar, who belonged to the line of prophet Mohammed, to accept an ordinary vegetable grower as his Master was a very extraordinary event in the social conditions of Bulleh Shah’s times. It was like an explosion which shook the prevailing social structure. Bullah had to suffer the taunts and ridicule not only of men of his religion, clan and caste, but also of all members of his family. He says :

1. 0, what has love done to me?

   People hurl at me taunts and rebukes.

2. For the sake of my true friend,

   I have to bear the reproaches of people.

3. To admonish Bullah came his sisters and sisters-in-law,

   “Why have you brought disgrace to the prophet

   and to the progeny of Ali?

Listen to our advice, 0 Bullah, and leave the hem of the Arain’s skirt.

Bullah preached fearlessly that the guidance of a Master was indispensable for spiritual realization, and the caste of the Master did not at all matter in this pursuit. Even if he belonged to the lowest caste, his help would still remain indispensable. Thus, he proclaimed at the top of his voice that pride in being a Sayyiad would land one in hell, and the one who held the skirt of a Master like Inayat Shah would enjoy the pleasures of heaven.

Let anyone, who calls me a Sayyiad,

 be punished with tortures of hell,

And let him revel in the pleasures of heaven,

 who labels me an Arain.

If you seek the pleasures of the spring season,

 become a slave of the Arain.

An interesting incident of this period in the life of Bulleh Shah presents a graphic picture of his ecstasy, generosity and fearlessness of public opinion. It is said that as a result of disgust from people’s attitude, Bulleh Shah purchased a few donkeys so that people should ridicule him. They started calling him “The man with donkeys.” During those days, a poor man’s wife was abducted by a Muslim Chieftain. In despair, the husband went to Bulleh Shah, and asked for his help in recovering his beloved wife. After a few moments spent in thought, Bulleh Shah told the man, “Go and see, my friend, if there is any music or dance going on somewhere near about.” The man soon came back and reported that a group of eunuchs was dancing in the village nearby, accompanied by a band of musicians. “That is good, ” said Bulleh Shah. “Come now and sit on one of my donkeys, and we shall both go to watch the dance. ” As soon as the saint arrived at the dance, he joined the group and also started dancing. He got into

an ecstasy and asked the man, “Where does the Muslim Chieftain live ?” The man told him that he lived in a certain part of the city near the orchard of dates and the grove of mangoes. Then Bulleh Shah called out withdirected attention :

There is a mango grove, it is said,

and an orchard of dates.

The owner of donkeys calls you,

Wake up, if you are asleep.

Sorrel is thus hulled in the mortar,

Sorrel is thus hulled, my friend!

The moment he uttered these words, the abducted woman ran out from the nearby garden and came to Bulleh Shah. Bulleh Shah stopped dancing and called to the husband, “Here is your beloved wife, brother! Take her home and guard her well.”

Then once more wrapped in ecstasy, he continued to dance to the bewitching music. The gossips lost no time in going to Bulleh Shah’s father, an orthodox Muslim, and told him all that had happened. Not only was his son now hiring out donkeys, but he had also started to dance with the eunuchs. Greatly distressed and enraged, the saint’s father, with a rosary in one hand and a staff in the other, hastened to the place where his son was dancing. ” Ah! it is you, father”  said Bulleh Shah as he heard his name called. He looked at his father intently and began to sing :

People have only chaplets but my father has a rosary.

The whole of his life he has toiled hard,

But has not been able to uproot a single hair.

Sorrel is thus hulled in the mortar .

Sorrel is thus hulled, my friend !

As the son, filled with spiritual ardor, gazed at his father, the inner eye of the father was opened and he had a divine vision. With a serene and radiant smile on his face, .he joined his son in the ecstatic dancing and singing, and as he danced, he sang over and over again :

Blessed are the parents whose sons

are dyed in such divine color !

They bring salvation even to their parents.

Sorrel is thus hulled in the mortar.

Sorrel is thus hulled, my friend !

The beginning of love is fascinating, but its path is difficult and its destination far. Even a small error or omission on the part of the lover can become a cause of great annoyance for the beloved. ‘That creates a mountain of calamities for the lover. Such a thing happened to Bulleh Shah, when his Master got annoyed with him for an omission on his part.

Some writers have attributed the reason for his Master’s annoyance to Bulleh Shah’s open criticism of rituals and customs practiced by Muslims, and this was not to the liking of Inayat Shah. This reason, however , does not appear plausible, because criticism of external observance .is common to all Sufi saints, and it was not unknown in the Qadiri tradition. They were certainly not the worshippers of this system.

The second reason given for the annoyance is quite different in nature. It is said that once Bulleh Shah invited his Master on the marriage of one of his relatives, The Saint deputed one of his disciples to represent him at the function. This disciple belonged to the Arain caste and was poorly clad. Now, Bulleh Shah’s family was proud of belonging to the clan of Sayyiads. They did not give proper attention in receiving this poorly clad man. Even Bullah happened to make this omission. At least he should have shown proper respect to the representative of his Master, But under the pressure of his family or the fear of public opinion, he did not give the guest due honor. When the disciple

returned from the marriage, the Saint asked him how the marriage was celebrated. He told his Master the whole story , and complained that because of his low caste and tattered clothes, neither Bulleh Shah nor his family showed him due respect. The Saint replied, “How dare Bullah behave like this ?” And then added, “What have we to get from this useless man ? We shall change the direction of the flow of water from his fields to yours !” He had only to utter these words to bring a calamity in Bullah’s life. As soon as the Master changed the direction of his grace, his spring turned into autumn. His inner visions vanished, leaving him dry and barren. Light changed into darkness and bliss into mourning. It was a stunning blow to Bullah.

One who has never experienced inner bliss and who has never had a glimpse of the divine glory of his Master within, his case is quite different. But the one who has enjoyed the wealth of inner experience and who is suddenly deprived of this treasure, he alone knows the pangs of such a torture. In fact, the lord of spiritual wealth is the perfect Master, and there is nothing in the hands of the disciple. Apparently, the disciple is himself seeking the Master, and with his own effort treads the path and progresses on it, as shown by the Master. But, in reality the disciple cannot search for the Master with his mind and meager intellect, nor can he find the true path with his own power and cleverness. N or can he rise to spiritual realms with his own endeavor. Finding the true path and achieving spiritual progress are all gifts of the Master’s grace. Bulleh Shah has himself written, “The Guru does whatever he wills.” But to realize this he had to suffer the annoyance of his Master and cross the frightening ocean of the fire of separation.

As soon as his spiritual experiences were stopped, Bullah hastened to his Master, but the Master turned his back on him and asked him to leave the place. For one thing, the annoyance of his Master ‘. for another the command not to see him! What greater torture could there be for a disciple ? Bullah was miserable. He began to burn in the fire of repentance, and his condition waslike that of a fish out of water .

In the compositions of Bullah, many references can be found of this heart-rending state of his mind. In many of his kafis there is a touch of his personal life. No one can say with certainty when these kafis were written. But the descriptions in these poems bespeak of such a mental state. The pain of separation erupts in them like turbulent waves. “In poignancy of emotion, sincerity of feeling, ardor and longing, these kafis are matchless. ”

From the kafi given below it is evident; that the memory of the bliss of union with the beloved and the pain of separation from him are continuing to burn Bullah to ashes like a house on fire. He cannot give up love, but in the separation of his beloved, he can find peace neither by day nor by night. He is not blessed with the sight of his beloved, but without seeing him, fire rages within his breast, and his heart is breaking. It is hard to bear such a state of mind, but it is also impossible to relinquish love. So he hangs between life and death :

I have been pierced by the arrow of love,

 what shall I do ?

I can neither live, nor can I die.

Listen ye to my ceaseless outpourings,

I have peace neither by night, nor by day.

I cannot do without my Beloved even for a moment.

I have been pierced by the arrow of love,

what shall I do ?

The fire of separation is unceasing !

Let someone take care of my love.

How can I be saved without seeing him?

I have been pierced by the arrow of love,

what shall I do ?

 

O Bullah, I am in dire trouble !

Let someone come to help me out.

How shall I endure such torture ?

I have been pierced by the arrow of love,

what shall I do ?

I can neither live, nor can I die.

In another kafi he describes his pain thus :

He left me, and himself he departed;

What fault was there in me ?

 

Neither at night nor in the day do I sleep in peace;

My eyes pour out tears !

Sharper than swords and spears are the arrows of love !

There is no one as cruel as love ;

This malady no physician can cure.

There is no peace, not for a moment,

So intense is the pain of separation !

O Bullah, if the Lord were to shower

His grace, My days would radically change !

He left me, and himself he departed.

What fault was there in me ?

As the period of separation became longer, Bullah’s condition became worse. On the one hand~ there was the pain of separation, on the other, the ridicule of people. He prostrates before the memory of his Master, and repeatedly entreats him to show his face to him at the earliest.

Why do you tarry , my Beloved ?

O Bullah, now narrate your love story.

He alone knows who has experienced love.

There are rebukes within, taunts without

Such is the comfort I have found in love !

My eyes have taken to the habit of weeping.

For one, it is death, for another, reproach from the world.

The pain of separation has tightly squeezed my life.

O Love, I have cried out my heart in anguish !

Bullah was full of repentance over his blunder. He was keenly desirous to be forgiven by his Master. In his mind he pleads to his Master to heal his wound of separation, and to apply. balm to his heart by showing his face to him.

I suffer from the pain of my mad love.

Come, dear Ranjha, cast a glance at me,

and forgive me my faults.

From the throne of Hazara set out Ranjha,

the Master of artless Heer.

The bridegroom visits the homes of all others;

What is the flaw that vitiates Bullah?

Bullah does not only describe the state of his suffering, but also hurls complaints at his Master. On the one hand, he regrets his own lack of wisdom, on the other, he reproaches his Master, who, after piercing his heart with the arrow of love, has hidden himself and has never inquired after him.

Inflicting a wound you hid your face;

Who has taught you such thefts, my Love?

With your fancy you captivated my heart,

But then you never showed your face. This cup of poison I have drunk myself ; Indeed I was unripe in wisdom!

He calls his Master “the beloved Thug of Lahore” and complains that he has robbed him with his love, and made him useless for the world.

Never be taken in by its guiles ;

It gives not peace in forest or city.

When the traveler left after casting a glance,

Suddenly a noose was hung round my neck.

He then showed no concern for me.

Oh, I have met the “beloved Thug of Lahore” !

To be incessantly weeping in separation of his Master had become the usual routine for Bullah. This separation of his had assumed the proportions of madness, and he started roaming in streets and lanes. The intense longing to see his Master produced a kind of fire within him, to extinguish which he began to think out some plans. “I He knew that his Master was a lover of music. It is said that Bulleh put on the garb of a woman, got hold of a sarangi  and went to the house of a dancing girl. He learnt dancing from her and became an adept in it. He then took along with him a drummer and a harmonium player and went to the tomb of a holy man in whose memory an annual function was being celebrated. Shah Inayat had also come to attend it. While all other dancers and singers got tired and sat down, Bullah, in ecstasy, continued to dance. His voice was extremely doleful and heart-rending. It is .said that Bullah sang many kafis on the occasion. At last even Inayat Shah’s heart melted. With a voice full of compassion he said, ” Are you Bullah ?” Bullah ran and fell at his Master’s feet and replied with his eyes full of tears, “Sir, I am not Bullah put Bhulla. ” I

The Master is never indifferent to his disciple. When he realized that the fire of repentance and separation had purified Bullah and turned him into pure gold, he forgave him his lapse and pressed him to his heart.

The reason why the Master put Bulleh Shah to such a hard test -the torture of burning in the fire of separation and longing ~ was to make him fit to receive the invaluable wealth of the Word of God. With this spiritual treasure he was not only to become rich himself, but also to make other seekers the recipients of this wealth.

When the fountain of the Master’s grace started flowing once again, the arid fields of Bullah began to revive, and the fragrance of the flowers of bliss spread all around. According to the author of Qanun-i-Ishq, the Master pressed Bullah to his heart, took him along with him, and intoxicated him with the wine of union. Bullah’s soul got dyed in the hue of his Master’s soul, so that no distinction remained between the two. One of Bulleh Shah’s kafis gives a graphic description of his state of merging in the Master (Fana-fil-Sheikh) :

Repeating the name of Ranjha

I have become Ranjha myself.

O call me ye all “Dhido-Ranjha,”

let no one call me Heer .

Ranjha is in me, I am in Ranjha,

no other thought exists in my mind.

I am not, He alone is.

He alone is amusing himself.

The Master is one with the Lord. So, merging in the Master is transformed into merging in the Lord. This state is expressed by Bullah in the following lines of two kafis :

1. You alone exist, I do not, O Beloved!

 

2. Repeating the name of the Beloved

   I have become the Beloved myself.

   Whom shall I call the Beloved now?

The same thought is conveyed by Jesus Christ in the Bible thus :

“At that day ye. shall know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you.”

Arriving at this stage, the illusion of duality disappears, and the glory of the Beloved is seen to pervade everywhere. Bulleh Shah declares that love for the Lord has so radically changed him that his individual self or ego has been totally eliminated. He has now realized his true Self hidden behind the veil of the physical body. His identification with the Supreme Being has opened for him the floodgates of divine light. In this light no one has remained a stranger. All have become His own.

I have got lost in the city of love,

I am being cleansed, withdrawing myself

from my head, hands and feet.

I have got rid of my ego,

and have attained my goal.

Thus it has all ended well.

O Bullah, the Lord pervades both the worlds;

None now appears a stranger to me.

In the transcendence of the finite to the Infinite; all disputes of religion, of good and evil, disappear. To Bullah now all began to appear as virtuous; none seemed to him as evil or a stranger.

Remove duality and do away with all disputes;

The Hindus and Muslims are not other than He.

Deem everyone virtuous, there are no thieves.

For, within every body He himself resides.

How the Trickster has put on a mask!

Saturated with the love of God, Bullah became the personification of compassion and forgiveness. He began to see the divine in every being, and distinctions of caste and religion, friend and foe, ceased to have any meaning for him. The following incident of his life illustrates this sublime state of his mind in a beautiful way:

It is said I that “once Bulleh Shah was engaged in meditation inside his chamber. It was the month of Ramzan. Some of his disciples were sitting outside eating carrots. After some time a group of orthodox Muslims who were keeping the fast happened to pass them. When they saw the disciples sitting at a faqir’s abode and violating the fast, they were enraged. ” They shouted in an angry voice, ” Are you not ashamed of eating in the month of Ramzan, and that also at the abode of a faqir?” The disciples replied, “Brother believers, take your path. We are feeling hungry. That is why we are eating. ”

The group of believers felt suspicious about their faith. So they asked, “Who are you?” They replied, “We are Muslims. Don’t the Muslims feel hungry?”. The believers again commanded them to stop eating, but the disciples did not heed. The believers who were on horses, alighted. They snatched the carrots from the hands of the disciples, and threw them away. They also gave a few blows to them. As they were about to leave, it struck them that the pir of these impious people must have been cast in the same mould. So they turned back to ask him what kind of instruction he had given to his disciples. They went to his chamber and said, “Who are you?” Bullah who was meditating with his eyes closed, raised his arms and moved his hands. They asked him again, “Why don’t you speak? Who are you?” Bullah once again raised his arms. The riders taking him to be a mad man, went away. Soon after they left, the disciples entered the chamber, raising a hue and cry that they had been beaten. Bullah told them that they must have done something to provoke the believers. The disciples denied to have done any such thing. Bullah said, “What did they ask you?” The disciples replied, “They asked us who we were, and we said we were Muslims.” Bullah retorted, “That’s why you were beaten. You became something and you suffered. I didn’t become anything, and they said nothing to me.”

To consider oneself something emanates from the sense of .ego. Such a person is still under the sway of maya, and has not had a vision of Truth so far. One who has had such a vision comes to know his true Self and gets liberated from the bondage of caste, religion and country. There are numerous instances in the poems of Bulleh Shah, which show that the soul, like the Lord, has no religion, no caste, no country. All these distinctions are born out of time and space, but the soul is unborn and timeless. It has neither a beginning, nor an end, nor is it bound by the limitations of caste and religion. Bullah recognizes only the primeval relationship of soul with God :

I take myself to be the beginning and the end;

I do not recognize aught except the One.

Having realized the Truth within, Bulleh Shah became the embodiment of Truth himself. He spent the rest of his life in disseminating the message of this Reality. Till the end of his sojourn in this transient world he was engaged in meditation of the Lord, and guided all those who came in contact with him, on the same path. His magnetic personality, his pure living and his divine writings spread his fame far and wide. Many a seeker after Truth was attracted by his charm and derived much spiritual gain under his guidance. The last years of his life he passed in Qasur, and here he died in 1758-1759. His t6mb can be seen in Qasur even today. It is mentioned in Bang-i-Auli-va-i-Hind :

When 1171 (Hijiri) had come to pass,

In Qasur his shrine was well raised.

Bulleh Shah was an evolved soul, a perfect faqir and a true lover. Through the love for his Master he realized the Lord. In his love one finds poignancy, ardor and longing besides sincerity, sacrifice and renunciation. Under the canopy of love he made his offerings of caste and learning. His love for his Master never wavered for a moment despite the fire of separation and longing through which he passed. His writings, as also his life, manifest transcendence of physical love ( of the Master) to divine love ( of the Lord). Indeed, this is. the path of all true mystics, all true lovers of God.

Whosoever has attained union with the Lord has done so by traveling on this path, and whosoever will attain this union, will do so by becoming a traveler on this path of love. Bulleh Shah’s life and writings are replete with subtle secrets of the path. They do riot only strengthen the love of a true lover, but also encourage him to undergo the severest hardships for reaching the spiritual goal. The life and compositions of Bulleh Shah will serve as a lighthouse for times immemorial to true seekers of spiritual realization.

                      ====================================================================

Health Is Wealth

11

FIRST ARTICLE .

1- BOINIC EYE LETS THE BLIND SEE

                           INCREDIABLE!!!!

Truth is whitest, is transparent wonder and mysterious than adventure than mystery.

However the reality based truth is A BIONIC eyes has allowed a blind patient to see well enough to sort his socks and work the washing machine after one of the first operations of its kind in the UK. Ron 73 is one of just three patients in the UK to be fitted with bionic eye and after 30 years of being completely blind he can now see well enough to do laundry.

 He lost his sight in his 40s after suffering from a disease called retinis pigmentosa but now thanks to the operations he is regaining some of his dependence. The bionic eye works works through a tiny camera mounted on a pair of glasses which transmits a pair of glasses which transmits a wireless signal into receiver and panel of electrodes implanted in the back of the eye.

The operation took four hours and was carried out by Lyndon Da Cruz as part of an international trail of 18 patients worldwide. As the technique develops and the implant is improved it is hoped future patient will be able to read and even see better than people with normal vision. WOW!!

SECOND ARTICLE

2- WHY GARLIC IS A ‘ WONDER FOOD ‘’ ? OR  WONDER FUL!!!!

Today a group of scientists have found out why garlic is health-wise beneficial. Researchers highlight the fact that garlic derives its aroma and flavor from an organic compound called allicin, which is considered to be the world’s most powerful antioxidant.

However, they add, none of the studies conducted to date have made it clear as to how allicin works, or it stacks up compared to more common antioxidants like Vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 which stop the damaging effects of radicals.

‘’We didn’t understand how garlic could contain such an efficient antioxidants, since it did’nt have a substantial amount of the types of compounds usually responsible for high antioxidant activity in plants, such as the flavanoids found in green tea or grapes. If allicin was indeed responsible for this activity in garlic, we wanted to find out how it worked, “Basically the allicin compound has to decompose in order to generate a potent antioxidant. The reaction between the sulfenie acid and radicles is as fast as it can get ,limited only by one has ever seen compounds, natural or synthetic react this quickly as antioxidants’’ .

Describing the study in the international chemistry journal Angewandte Chemie, the researcher expressed confidence that a link exists between the reactivity of the sulfenie acid and the medicinal benefits of garlic. ‘’ While garlic has been used as a herbal medicine for centuries and there are many garlic supplements on the market until now there been no convincing explanation as to why garlic is beneficial . While onions, leeks and shallots contain a compound that is very similar to allicin, they do not have the same medicinal properties as garlic.

Before 6 hijra PBUH recommended GARLIC as the most favorable and desirable food for health recovery and maintaince.  Scientists proved GARLIC wonder food and wonderful food today where as PBUH recommended centuries ago that ‘’ GARLIC IS WONDER FOOD’’

 

THIRD ARTICLE

3- NEW CLUE ON WHY CANCER SPREAD IS LINKED TO DIET

Investigators said there could be a clue to explain why dietary restriction succeeds or fails in breaking the growth of cancer. Scientists spotted a century ago the link between calorie (intake and the progression of certain kinds of tumor. Nada Kalaany and David Sabatini of the Massachusetts Insittute of Technology (MIT ) looked at the impact of food curbs on six types of humans cancers that had been grafted onto mice which had been genetically modified to lack immune resistance.

The mice were then split into two groups, with one batch able to tuck into a standard ( rodent diet for two to three weeks. The others received daily –meals that amounted to & 40 percent reduction in calories compared to their counterparts, which led to a fall of between 20 and 30 percent in body weight .

 

 

FORTH ARTICLE

4 – ASIA FACES TOBACCO-RELATED DISEASE ‘ EPIDEMIC

Policymakers need to step up efforts to cut smoking rates in Asia to prevent an ‘epidemic’ of tobacco-related lung disease, a conference held in Mumbai was told.

Many Asian countries has seen a surge in tobacco use in the last decade, particularly among the young and in urban areas as a result of economic growth . A rise in smoking in women has also been noted .

But ignorance of health risks remain, especially among the rural poor, while overall tobacco use is adding an economic burden to countries in terms of healthcare and insurance costs plus lost productivity through illness . Matthew Peters, head of thoracic medicine at Sydney’s Concord hospital told the 14th World conference on tobacco or health that there were real and material healthcare benefits for countries to encourage people to quit. For tuberculosis, which is increasing in Asia, 20 to 60 percent of cases were caused by smoking, he told a seminar untitled ‘ Tobacco’ or health that there were real and material healthcare benefits for countries to encourage people to quit .

For tuberculosis, which is increasing in Asia 20 to 60 percent of cases were caused by smoking he told a seminar entitled ‘TABACCO ‘related lung disease in Asia actions to avert the epidemic .

‘’ stopping smoking is a very simple way cutting Tb rates, ‘’ he said , adding that quitting also meant the region’s poor, who are most affected by the disease, could use the money that previously went on tobacco for food and clothing .

‘’ These benefits are substantial, they are seen quickly and impact on the most important health risks in this region …. and the especially complex issue of economic deprivation and nutrition, ‘’ he added.

The conference has already heard concern about increases in smoking and tobacco use in Asia, as big tobacco firms look to the region foe new markets as more people give up in developed countries. Health professionals want anti-smoking legislation, including bans on tobacco advertising tightened up . Some 1.25 billion people worldwide use tobacco in some form everyday. China and India account for more than half of that total, according to American Cancer Society and World Lung Foundation statistics presented here.

Fundamental Prepositions of BDM :

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(Distributed Part I, II & III)

Part I : Basically- in a simple way- the role of a Business Development Manager- BDM are into 3 fields:
Building brand Image of the Company through exhibition and seminars
Developing trade channels and business portals
identifying new market/new product/new molecule

Business development and making your organization successful is reliant on good knowledge of best practice and management theories. 

Business development management involves asking yourself some searching questions. Are you prepared to change to realize the vision created by your Business Development Strategy?

  • Business & Development Configurations.
  • Business Development & Marketing Tooling for Company Orientation.
  • Business Development & Sales Evaluation/ Sales Generations/ Relationship Networks.
  • Business management & development Management —- Parallel study & Equilibrium.
  • Proactive Predications/ Communication/ Negotiations/ Team Developments/ Quality Assurance.
  • Customer Enhancement/ Revenue Increase Planning & Achievements.

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PART II : Values/expectations of the

Sales Organization & The selling process:

The columns compare traditional old-style selling versus modern developed selling ideas.

Traditional Selling

Modern Development Selling

Typical 1960s-80s selling and still found today.

Essential to sustain successful business today.

standard product

customized, flexible, tailored product and service

sales function performed by a ’sales-person’

sales function performed by a ’strategic business manager’

seller has product knowledge

seller has strategic knowledge of customer’s market-place and knows all implications and opportunities resulting from product/service supply relating to customer’s market-place

delivery service and supporting information and training are typical added value aspects of supply

strategic interpretation of the customer organization’s market opportunities, and assistance with project evaluation and decision-making are added value aspects of supply

good lead-time is a competitive advantage

just-in-time (JIT) is taken for granted, as are mutual planning and scheduling; competitive advantages are: capability to anticipate unpredictable requirements, and assistance with strategic planning and market development

value is represented and judged according to selling price

value is assessed according to the cost to the customer, plus non-financial implications with respect to CSR (corporate social responsibility), environment, ethics, and corporate culture

the benefits and competitive strengths of the products or service are almost entirely tangible, and intangibles are rarely considered or emphasized

the benefits and competitive strengths of the product or service now include many significant intangibles, and the onus is on the selling organization to quantify their value

benefits of supply extend to products and services only

benefits of supply extend way beyond products and services, to relationship, continuity, and any assistance that the selling organization can provide to the customer to enable an improvement for their staff, customers, reputation and performance in all respects

selling price is cost plus profit margin, and customers have no access to cost and margin information

selling price is market driven (essentially supply and demand), although certain customers may insist on access to cost and margin information

seller knows the business customers’ needs

seller knows the needs of the business customers’ customers and partners and suppliers

sales person sells (customers only deal with sales people, pre-sale)

whole organization sells (customers expect to be able to deal with anybody in supplier organization, pre-sale)

sales people only sell externally, i.e., to customers

sales people need to be able to sell internally to their own organization, in order to ensure customer needs are met

strategic emphasis is on new business growth (ie, acquiring new customers)

strategic emphasis is on customer retention and increasing business to those customers (although new business is still sought)

buying and selling is a function, with people distinctly responsible for each discipline within selling and customer organizations

buying and selling is a process, in which many people with differing jobs are involved in both selling and customer organizations

hierarchical multi-level management structures exist in selling and customer organizations

management structures are flat, with few management layers

authority of sales person is minimal, flexibility to negotiate is minimal, approvals must be sought via management channels and levels for exceptions

authority of sales person is high (subject to experience), negotiation flexibility exists, and exceptions are dealt with quickly and directly by involving the relevant people irrespective of grade

selling and buying organization are divided strictly according to function and department, inter-departmental communications must go up and down the management structures

selling organization is structured in a matrix allowing for functional efficiency and also for inter-functional collaboration required for effective customer service, all supply chain processes, and communications

supplier and customer organization functions tend to talk to their ‘opposite numbers’ in the other organization

open communications to, from and across all functions between supplier and customer organization

the customer specifies and identifies product and service requirements

the selling organization must be capable of specifying and identifying product and service requirements on behalf of the customer

the customer’s buyer function researches and justifies the customer organization’s needs

the selling organization must be capable of researching and justifying customer organization’s needs, on behalf of the customer

the customer’s buyer probably does not appreciate his/her organization’s wider strategic implications and opportunities in relation to the seller’s product or service, and there will be no discussion with the seller about this issues

the seller will help the buyer to understand the wider strategic implications and opportunities in relation to the seller’s product or service

the buyer will tell the seller what the buying or supplier-selection process is

the seller will help the buyer to understand and align the many and various criteria within their own (customer) organization, so that the customer organization can assess the strategic implications of the supplier’s products or services, and make an appropriate decision whether to buy or not

 

Nowadays, more is demanded from the selling process by consumers, professional buyers and organizations choosing their suppliers. The analysis below refers both to the development in recent decades of what customers require from the selling function.

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PART III : The Development of the Selling Function :

1. Pure Transaction

Since time began. Pure transaction is effectively one step removed from stone-age barter.

Basic selling. Standard commoditized products, price and reliability – there is little to build on, business may be spasmodic, hand-to-mouth and unpredictable. There is no relationship other than the transaction.

2. Relationship &Trust

Since the beginning of selling as a profession, popularized by Dale Carnegie, among others, early-mid 1900s

Continuity, consistency, sustainability, and some understanding of the customer’s real issues are seen to have a value by both selling and buying organization. Intangibles such as continuity on communications and contacts, matched styles of trading, mutual flexibility and adaptability, are regarded as relevant benefits by the customer, which can justify a price premium, and therefore offer protection against ‘cheaper’ competitors, and build loyalty to supplier.

3. Management & Information

Operated instinctively in isolated examples in business relationships for centuries, but not generally seen in selling methodology, sales training and strategic application until the 1960s-1970s.

The provision of management and information support by seller to buying organization, and the exchange and cooperation in these areas represent a significant increase in depth and effectiveness of selling relationships.  

 A longer-term supply arrangement – a requirement for and outcome of this level of selling – is seen as an advantage by seller and buyer, because it brings extra intangible benefits of co-operation and support other areas of the customer’s business, e.g., training, technology, product development – which improve the customer’s own competitive strengths and operating efficiencies. The supplier is seen as part of the team, and is likely to be more involved in some of the customer’s own internal systems, meetings, planning, etc.

4. Partnership

A sophisticated open approach to selling which mainly first developed in the 1980s, probably in response to the increasing complexity of business relationships, technology, global markets, etc., and the increasingly fast pace of change. Organizations could be more effective and adaptable by devolving operating responsibilities to suppliers. Very different to merely buying and selling products and services.

The activities of the buying and selling organization become almost seamless wherever they are connected; the supplier is virtually part of the customer’s organization and treated as such. ‘Out-sourcing’ generally requires this degree of collaboration, which involves a level anticipation, innovation and integrated support that is very difficult to un-pick, even if it were in the customer’s interests to do so. Partnership level selling is not a legal or contractual arrangement; it describes the relationship, which operates virtually as a formal partnership would do. There is typically an enormous depth of understanding and cooperation which is not written down or detailed in a contract. Partnership selling relationships generally need time to develop – probably between 1-3 years depending on the size and complexity of the seller and buyer organizations.

5. Education & Enablement

2000 and beyond. The dimensions, scope and impact of this new type of selling are not yet fully developed and defined.

There are signs however that the sellers who can give most to their customers – especially in areas that the customers didn’t even know they had a need or an opportunity – will be the most successful.

The educational and ‘giving’ activities of the selling organization extend the aspects of anticipation and information found in the partnership level. Also incorporated are aspects of facilitative and enabling support, which are for example well represented by Sharon Drew Morgan’s ‘Buying Facilitation methodology.

The seller gives to the customer any and all help it can reasonably offer as might improve the customer’s understanding, interpretation and commercial development of issues relating to the supply area.

 

This is a hugely sophisticated level of selling which was difficult to see anywhere in the last century. Sellers and selling organizations take the role of teacher, guide, mentor, enabler; which can influence and help customers far beyond commercial and financial outcomes, into previously unimagined strategic business development and considerable change. Internet organizations such as Google are examples of this sort of selling, which at its best can actually give more than it takes.

 

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General Over View: - Main Structure of above preposition Business Development Management/ Manager:

  • Ø Business Development Manager; Responsibilities, Roles & Manipulations.
  • Ø Business Development Analysists —- The Manager.
  • Ø Successful Business Development; Business Development Services.
  • Ø Business Development Keys.
  • Ø Business Development Planning/ Strategies.
  • Ø Fundamental preposition of BDM.
  • Ø Selling Process, Comparison…….. Up dated Version.
  • Ø Values, Quantity & Quality —— Finally as Money Making.

 

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